Wood is a natural material of organic origin, which has a whole range of different properties. The quality characteristics of wood vary depending on its species and different growing conditions. In order to determine the type of wood, it is enough just to carefully study a sample of this material.
The main signs for determining the type of wood are the width of the sapwood, the presence of a kernel, various degrees of visibility of the annual layers, the sharpness of the transition from the kernel itself to the sapwood, the size and presence of heart-shaped rays, the presence of resin passages, their number and size, as well as the diameter of the vessels of the wood. Additional features include gloss, color, smell, texture, shape, and number of knots.
In such ripe tree species as fir, spruce, beech and aspen, the central part of the trunk differs markedly from the peripheral in the lowest moisture content, but it is almost impossible to distinguish by color.
Its mechanical properties, and not just its appearance, depend on the width of the annual rings. The best wood among conifers is the one with the narrowest layers. Pine with reddish wood and narrow annual layers is called among the ore craftsmen and is very highly valued. Pine with wide rings is called myandova, but its strength is much lower than the previous one.
If you look closely at the end section of deciduous trees, you can distinguish between dark or light points, these are the so-called vessels of the tree. In ash, oak, and elm, large vessels are arranged in three rows in the early wood region, forming dark rings in each annual layer. That is why these types of trees are usually called ring-vascular. They are of durable and heavy wood.
In aspen, birch and linden, the vessels are barely distinguishable, very small. These types of trees are called diffuse-vascular. Apple, maple and birch have hard wood. And aspen, linden and alder have a soft structure.