A person throughout his life is surrounded by various environments (natural, social, household, industrial and many others), which, interacting with each other, form a single system. This interaction, as well as the influence of environments, can be both positive and negative. It is the latter that is the source of all kinds of emergencies.
An emergency situation is called an unfavorable situation in a certain territory, which can adversely affect the health of the population and the animal world, as well as lead to human casualties, damage to the natural environment and material losses. Emergency situations, as a rule, occur as a result of any dangerous natural phenomenon, accident, natural disaster, catastrophe and other negative incidents.
Since there are a huge variety of types of emergencies, they can be classified according to several criteria. By the scale of their spread, emergencies are divided into: - local - these are emergencies in which the damaged or affected area does not exceed the area of an apartment, plot, estate, workplace or small section of the road; - on-site - these are emergency situations, the consequences of which do not go beyond the territory of a production facility or any other facility and can be eliminated or prevented directly by its resources and labor; - local - these are emergencies that spread on the territory of a settlement, district, city, region or republic; - regional - these are emergencies that cover several regions or regions at once; - federal (national) - these are emergencies that affect the territory of the country, but not going beyond its boundaries.
According to the rate of development, the following types of emergencies are distinguished: - smooth - these are emergencies lasting for several months or even years: epidemics, droughts, environmental deviations and others; - moderate - these are emergencies, the duration of which does not exceed 1 year: floods, volcanic eruptions and much more); - rapid - these are emergencies that last no more than a few hours: mudflows, fires, etc.); - sudden - these are emergencies that, as the name implies, occur suddenly, unexpectedly: explosions, earthquakes, transport accidents and more.
Emergencies by origin are: - technogenic in nature: transport accidents, explosions, fires, accidents with the release or with the threat of emission of radioactive, chemically hazardous and biologically hazardous substances, sudden collapse of buildings, hydrodynamic accidents, etc.; - natural: geophysical (volcanic eruptions and earthquakes), geological (mudflows, landslides, avalanches), meteorological (hurricanes, storms, droughts, blizzards), hydrological (floods, congestion, jamming), marine hydrological (tsunamis, typhoons, ice pressure) and others; - ecological nature: associated with changes in the state of the soil (desertification, degradation, salinization, erosion), the composition and properties of the atmosphere (temperature inversions, "oxygen" hunger, acid precipitation), and the state of the hydrosphere (depletion and pollution of water sources); - social nature: hunger, wars, riots, major strikes.