When preparing for the Unified State Exam in Russian, teachers try to put a fairly large amount of material into the heads of students. One of the necessary skills for passing the exam is the ability to carry out phonetic analysis of a word.
Phonetics is one of the branches of linguistics that deals with the study of the sound composition of words. It is from this stage that the study of any language begins, since this science allows you to master the specific skills of pronunciation of sounds and their combinations. In addition, knowledge of the basics of phonetics allows you to master other sections of linguistics, in particular, the historical grammar of a particular language.
In the Unified State Exam, one (sometimes two) tasks are encountered, which should test how well the student has the skills of phonetic analysis. Usually in such an exercise it is proposed to determine the number of sounds and syllables in a word. Four to five answer options are offered, from which you need to choose the one you need.
Starting phonetic analysis, you need to say the word out loud. To avoid mistakes, remember that the outer shell of a word does not always match the sound one. Write the word down in a notebook or piece of paper. Then take a pencil and divide the analyzed fragment of the sentence into syllables, highlight the stress in it.
The next step is to clarify the positions in which it is allowed to wrap a word from one line to another. Write down all possible transfer options. Then use a pre-prepared alphabet table, which indicates exactly how to transcribe a particular letter, and create a transcription of the analyzed word.
It is imperative to describe each sound according to certain parameters. If you are analyzing a vowel sound, it is enough to write whether it is stressed or not. In the case of a consonant, it is necessary to clarify whether it is voiced or voiceless, whether it has a pair (for example, “d” - “t”, where “d” is voiced, and “t” is voiceless”). It is also necessary to indicate how this sound is pronounced - hard or soft.
Count the total number of letters and sounds, then draw a conclusion - whether these numbers are the same or not. Remember that there are specific situations when one letter can consist of several sounds, for example, the letter "u" in phonetic transcription is indicated as two different sounds [y] and [y].