Statistics is a scientific direction that studies changes in data on mass phenomena and processes over time. It includes methods for collecting, storing and processing this data, their analysis and interpretation. Statistics is an indispensable planning and management tool that allows you to get the most objective assessments and make forecasts that are as close to reality as possible.
Data collection methods involve complete or sample surveys of objects and entire populations. In other words, the monitoring of processes is carried out by fixing each individual case or by a representative sample, the parameters of which may be different - after the same quantitative or time interval, fixing the minimum and maximum values, etc.
Statistical data are stored and processed. With the development of technology, there are no longer any problems in using information in full and processing it automatically. The existing theory of mathematical processing of statistical measurements allows obtaining the most reliable results, excluding factors that have a random effect on the processes. This theory allows the development of indicators that most fully reflect real processes.
Mathematical statistics is used in many fields of technology and exact sciences; applied statistics are used to describe natural processes in nature and society. The task of mathematical statistics is to develop methods for processing and analyzing data, checking their validity, conditions of use and assessing resistance to changes in these conditions. The problems solved by applied statistics include the description, development of principles of generalization and explanation of the nature of phenomena with the development of methods for predicting or explaining these phenomena.
The use of statistical methods of information processing allows, with a high degree of correctness and reliability, to generalize the results of local, sample studies and predict them for the general population.
With the help of statistical analysis, it is possible to obtain objective assessments of practically all scientific phenomena and those that characterize the life of society. The interpretation of statistical indicators helps to make science-based management decisions, therefore, statistical organizations exist on the territory of each administrative unit of regional subordination.