The view of the starry sky can make few people indifferent. But it is even more pleasant to observe the Moon and other celestial bodies through a telescope. It is quite possible to make the simplest telescope on your own, you just need a desire, a little free time and the simplest tools and materials.
Get two eyeglass lenses of 0.5 diopters - they will become the lens of the future telescope. Fold them together and connect with a narrow flat piece of electrical tape.
Cut a strip of paper 5 cm wide and 50 cm long from a piece of Whatman paper. Paint it on one side with black ink. Wind the strip around the lens and fix the end with glue. To keep the lenses level and not fall out when using the telescope, fix them on both sides with Whatman rings inserted on the glue that fit tightly into the lens barrel.
Before inserting the outer retaining ring, place a diaphragm in front of the lens - a round piece of black ink-painted cardboard with a three centimeters diameter hole cut in the center. Aperture is necessary, as without it, the image will be severely distorted by aberrations caused by imperfect lenses used for the lens.
The lens is ready, now you need to make a tube - the telescope tube itself. It consists of two parts made from Whatman paper. To glue the first one, cut a strip of Whatman paper 80 cm wide and about a meter long. Roll the tube out of it, its diameter should be such that the lens fits snugly into it. Paint the part of the Whatman paper that forms the inner surface of the tube with black ink. In the same way, glue the second part of the tube twenty centimeters long, it should go into the main pipe with friction and be able to move. Later, when adjusting the telescope, you will fix it with glue.
For the eyepiece, take a small, about 1-2 cm in diameter, lens with a focal length of 3-4 cm. The magnification of the telescope depends on the focal length of this lens, it is equal to the ratio of the focal length of the objective (you have 1 meter) to the focal length of the eyepiece. That is, your telescope will magnify about 20 to 30 times. Do not try to select very short throw lenses, as this will significantly increase distortion.
Glue the eyepiece lens into a Whatman tube 20 cm long, painted with black ink inside. Place a diaphragm with a 5-7 mm aperture in front of the lens. After the eyepiece tube is ready, cut two circles out of thick cardboard. Their diameter should be such that they fit snugly into the second part of the tube. Glue them - one at the end, the second 10 cm from the first. Make holes in them in advance along the diameter of the eyepiece tube. Don't forget to paint the cardboard mugs black.
Setting up the telescope comes down to determining the relative position of the tube parts - it should be such that the eyepiece tube, when focusing on focus, does not go deep into the tube and does not protrude too much - that is, it works with its middle part. Having determined this position, fix the second part of the tube with glue.
Make a tripod for the telescope that allows the tube to move in two planes. You can use a tripod from photographic equipment as a base. Think over the fastening design yourself.
It is best to observe the moon through a homemade telescope. Craters and other details of the lunar surface are most conveniently viewed when the disk of the earth's satellite is half visible - in this case, the shadows allow you to distinguish much more detail.