Firearms, possessing undeniable advantages, have a significant drawback - a loud bang is heard at the time of the shot. This doesn't really matter when using a pistol in normal combat. But when carrying out certain special operations by special-purpose units, the sharp sound of a shot is extremely undesirable. A muffler helps to eliminate this harmful effect.
The first muffler was developed by the French military at the end of the 19th century. The device was a shot sound suppressor, was very bulky and had several internal chambers. The device was widely used in military affairs, since it made it possible to mask the place from which the shot was fired. It was more difficult for the enemy to determine from which direction they were shooting, which gave the shooter a certain advantage.
At the moment the shot is fired, the sound is emitted both by the moving metal parts of the pistol and by gases that abruptly push the bullet out of the barrel. The purpose of a pistol muffler is precisely to neutralize the energy of gases by extinguishing their flow. Usually the muffler, which is an elongated cylinder, is screwed directly onto the barrel of the pistol. In fact, such a device is a muzzle attachment.
The explosion of a powder charge in a cartridge becomes a factor that determines the sound power when firing a pistol. The powder gases are followed by a powerful sound wave comparable to a roar. The task of the muffler is to remove this factor, to lower the gas temperature and pressure at the moment the gas jet exits the barrel into the surrounding space.
In addition, the sound is emitted by the bullet itself, which produces a so-called ballistic wave. A standard muffler is not able to cope with this harmful factor. They try to remove the sound of a bullet flying out of the barrel by reducing the departure speed, which is achieved by reducing the length of the pistol barrel. Another way to reduce bullet whistle is to add holes in the muffler through which the propellant gases escape.
The pistol silencer has a complex structure and consists of several expansion chambers, separated by partitions and membranes. Waste gases leave the borehole at a very high speed. Passing through the system of silencer chambers, the gas jet loses its energy, which is then extinguished. If the diameter of the barrel and the bullet coincide completely, the silencer performs its function properly, turning the sharp sound of a shot into a weak pop.
Those who have to use service and civilian firearms should be aware that unauthorized installation of any technical devices for silent shooting on them is prohibited by law and threatens with confiscation of the device and a large fine. These requirements are spelled out in article 20.9 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation. The same restrictions apply to night vision sighting devices.