The Greenwich meridian, which serves as a reference point for geographical longitudes, and the 180 meridian that continues it, divide the Earth into two hemispheres - Western and Eastern. That part of the planet that is east of the Greenwich meridian and west of 180 is the Eastern Hemisphere.
Most of the continents are located in the Eastern Hemisphere of the Earth: Eurasia (with the exception of a small part of Chukotka), most of Africa, Australia and part of Antarctica.
Most of Eurasia is located north of the equator. Eurasia is the largest of the Earth's continents. Its area is 36% of the entire earth's land - 53, 593 million km². It is not only the largest, but also the most populated continent; ¾ of humanity lives here.
The coastline is heavily indented, there are many bays and peninsulas, the largest of which are Hindustan and the Arabian Peninsula. In contrast to other continents, the mountains in Eurasia are located mainly in the central part, and the plains in the coastal regions.
Eurasia is the only continent on which all climatic zones of the Earth are represented: equatorial, tropical, subtropical, temperate, subarctic and arctic.
Eurasia is washed by all four oceans: the Arctic in the north, the Indian in the south, the Pacific in the east, and the Atlantic in the west.
Africa occupies the second place in terms of area among the continents - 29 million km², and about 1 billion people live here.
The equator divides Africa in half, and this location makes it the hottest continent. In the central part of the continent, the climate is equatorial, to the south and north - tropical and subtropical. The Sahara, the largest desert not only in Africa, but also on Earth, has the highest temperature on the planet: +58 degrees.
The coastline is poorly indented, there are no large bays and peninsulas.
The relief of Africa is represented mainly by high plains, cut in some places by deep river valleys.
The shores of Africa are washed by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean and Red Seas.
Australia is located much south of the equator. Because of this geographical location, Europeans discovered it later than other continents - 100 years after the discovery of America.
Australia is the smallest continent on Earth, with an area of only 7,659,861 km². For this reason, geographers considered Australia an island for some time, but now it is ranked as a continent, since Australia is located on a separate tectonic plate.
Most of the mainland is semi-desert and desert, but the climate of the southwestern part of the continent is reminiscent of the Mediterranean. The most interesting feature of the climate in Australia, associated with the location south of the equator, is the "reverse" seasons: the warmest month is January, the coldest month is June.
The fauna of Australia is unique. This continent separated from others before the marsupial mammals were supplanted by the placentals, and became a true "nature reserve" of these animals.
Australia is washed by the Indian Ocean in the north and east, the Pacific - in the south and west.