The microscope makes it possible to study very small objects that cannot be seen directly. The device of this device allows you to penetrate the secrets of the microworld and go beyond the resolution of the human eye. In serious scientific laboratories, optical microscopes are increasingly being replaced by electronic devices.
How the microscope works
The first microscope was an optical device that made it possible to obtain a reverse image of micro-objects and to see very small details of the structure of the substance to be studied. According to its scheme, an optical microscope is a device similar to the design of a refractory telescope, in which light is refracted at the moment it passes through glass.
A beam of light rays entering the microscope is first converted into a parallel stream, and then refracted in the eyepiece. Then information about the object of research enters the human visual analyzer.
For convenience, the object of observation is highlighted. A mirror located at the bottom of the microscope is intended for this purpose. Light reflects off a specular surface, passes through the object under consideration, and enters the lens. A parallel stream of light goes up towards the eyepiece. The magnification of the microscope depends on the lens parameters. Usually this characteristic is indicated on the body of the device.
The microscope has two main systems: mechanical and optical. The first includes a stand, a box with a working mechanism, a stand, a tube holder, coarse and fine aiming screws, and a stage. The optical system includes a lens, an eyepiece and an illumination unit, which includes a capacitor, a light filter, a mirror and an illumination element.
Modern optical microscopes have not one, but two or even more lenses. This helps to deal with image distortion called chromatic aberration.
The optical system of the microscope is the main element of the entire structure. The lens determines the magnification of the object in question. It consists of lenses, the number of which depends on the type of device and its purpose. The eyepiece also uses two or even three lenses. To determine the overall magnification of a particular microscope, multiply the magnification of its eyepiece by the same characteristic of the objective.
Over time, the microscope has improved, the principles of its operation have changed. It turned out that when observing the microworld, it is possible to use not only the property of light refraction. Electrons can also be involved in the work of a microscope. Modern electron microscopes allow you to see individually particles of matter, which are so small that light flows around them. Magnifying glasses are not used to refract electron beams, but magnetic elements.