Charcoal is one of the products of wood combustion. A black porous substance composed of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of mineral impurities in the form of carbonates and oxides of various metals.
- - wood to be converted into coal
- - firewood
- - iron container
- - scoop
Charcoal is obtained by thermal decomposition of wood without air flow. This process is called pyrolysis. Depending on the combustion conditions, a product with different properties is formed. The main parameter affecting the quality of coal is the pyrolysis temperature.
When wood is charred, moisture and oxygen are removed from it, leaving only flammable substances - carbon and hydrogen. The pyrometric parameters of the resulting product are increased in comparison with the starting material. To obtain coal, wood glowing should be carried out slowly, and the process temperature should be about 400 ° C. Rapid heating to high temperatures will lead to the formation of tar and volatile combustion products.
You can also get charcoal at home by building an analogue of a charcoal oven. An iron barrel with a sealed lid is suitable for this. Prepare a site and wood for the fire, as well as wood to be turned into charcoal. Place the barrel on a stand such as stones or bricks. Fill your makeshift charcoal kiln with wood that has been cut into small pieces. Close the cover hermetically. Provide small openings for flammable gases to escape. Make a fire under the barrel.
After a few hours, when gases cease to come out of the holes, the heating can be stopped. But the barrel should not be opened until the resulting coal has completely cooled down without air access. Otherwise, the combustion process in air may resume and the coal will completely burn out.
You can simply burn the wood in a stove or fire until red coals form. Then collect the charcoal with a scoop into an iron container, close it tightly and leave without air flow until it cools completely.