What Are The Types Of Intelligence

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What Are The Types Of Intelligence
What Are The Types Of Intelligence

Video: What Are The Types Of Intelligence

Video: What Are The Types Of Intelligence
Video: 9 Types of Intelligence, Which One Are You? 2023, September

Intelligence is the ability inherent in a person to indirectly and generalized reflection of reality - thinking. In everyday speech, this psychological concept corresponds to the word "mind".

Solving math problems is a manifestation of intelligence
Solving math problems is a manifestation of intelligence

Human thinking has many manifestations, therefore, intelligence as an ability is not a single whole. In psychological science, there are different models and classifications of types of intelligence.

G. Eysenck's classification

American psychologist G. Eysenck identified three types of intelligence: biological, psychometric and social. By biological intelligence, the researcher meant the physiological basis of cognitive behavior - neurological, hormonal and biochemical. Psychometric intelligence is a set of thinking abilities that are measured by standard tests. Social intelligence is the ability to adapt to the social environment.

Model D. Wechsler

American psychiatrist and psychologist D. Wexler proposed a hierarchical model of intelligence, classifying its types by levels. He identified the level of general intelligence, the level of group factors and the level of specific factors.

D. Veksler refers to the level of group factors as verbal intelligence and spatial intelligence. Verbal intelligence is responsible for oral and written speech, interpersonal communication, spatial intelligence - for the perception of visual images, the ability to create and manipulate them.

Arithmetic, technical and other special abilities are at the level of specific intellectual factors. In addition, D. Veksler divided intelligence into verbal and non-verbal. The first is associated with those abilities that a person acquires during life, and the second - with psychophysiological capabilities inherent in humans by nature.

R. Cattell's classification

The American researcher R. Cattell subdivided the intellect into free and connected.

Free intelligence ensures the initial accumulation of knowledge by the individual. It is determined by the development of the associative zones of the cerebral cortex. This type of intelligence does not in any way depend on how much a person is involved in culture. Tests that reveal it are perceptual tasks, in the solution of which the subject finds differences in the images.

In contrast to free intelligence, bound intelligence is determined by the life experience of the individual - the knowledge and intellectual skills that a person acquires while living in society, joining the culture of a particular society.

M. Kholodnaya classification

The Russian psychologist M. Kholodnaya distinguishes several types of intelligence that perform opposite functions.

1. General intelligence determines success in many types of activities, private - in one.

2. Coverage intelligence ensures the achievement of a given goal, divergent - the creation of new goals.

3. Reproductive intelligence is responsible for updating information, productive intelligence for transforming it.

4. Crystallized intelligence provides the accumulation of information, the current - for its processing.