Physico-geographical zoning is carried out according to some individual characteristics (relief, soil, climates - sectoral zoning) and in a complex (landscape zoning). This is a way to identify the specifics of individual geographic regions, and therefore underlies the territorial division of the planet as a whole.
History of regionalization
Until the 19th century, regionalization did not have a scientific basis and was carried out according to the most obvious external signs: rivers, mountains or state borders. There was no clear concept of the difference between physical-geographical and economic zoning.
Throughout the 19th century, there was an active development of geographical disciplines, which also influenced the formation of regionalization. Economic zoning appeared as an independent direction in science, and sectoral zoning schemes began to develop. At the same time, the principle of zoning was developed. During the Soviet era, zoning also began to take into account the principle of provincialism, climatic changes and large structures of the earth's crust.
How is zoning
The division into regions is carried out on the basis of the delineation of natural boundaries. Each region has its own history of development; similar natural processes take place in it. According to zonal features, zoning distinguishes physical and geographical belts, zones and subzones. On azonal basis - physical and geographical countries and regions. In the regions, an internal division into geographic sectors is used - this became necessary due to the unequal influence of the oceans on the nature of the continents. The sectors are oceanic, transitional, continental and sharply continental.
The division into zonal and azonal areas is not accidental, there are certain relationships between them. In different physical-geographical regions and countries, natural processes may differ slightly, which naturally leads to derivative zoning. The lowest level of such zoning is the physical-geographical region. It is homogeneous both from the point of view of the zonal principle and from the point of view of the azonal one.
Physico-geographical zoning is an important geographical basis for the accounting and assessment of natural resources in the complex. Division into geographic units is often used for district planning, as well as for transport, medical, construction and other purposes. Physical and geographical zoning determines the practical value of a particular region. Thanks to zoning, it is possible to select a region for solving a specific problem that will meet the necessary requirements for natural indicators, climatic characteristics, etc.