Tsunami is one of the most terrible and destructive natural forces of nature. This Japanese word means "big wave". Over the past hundred years, hundreds of thousands of people have died and gone missing from the impact of giant waves. The most devastating tsunami occurred in 2004 in the Indian Ocean. If people knew how to predict the approaching element and what to do if the wave is already underway, there could be much fewer victims.
The most prone to tsunamis are coastal areas located in close proximity to the joints of lithospheric plates. First of all, this is the coast of Japan, Peru, Sakhalin, India, Australia and Madagascar. Most tsunamis are a consequence of underwater earthquakes of various amplitudes. Their strength is measured in points. The stronger the earthquake, the more powerful and destructive the tsunami. Therefore, the first harbingers of a tsunami are tremors. They can be weak, which is recorded only by seismographs, or strong, felt by people. The task of seismologists is to warn the population about any tremors and their possible consequences. Upon warning, you must evacuate coastal areas immediately. You will have little time: from several hours to several tens of minutes.
Tsunami moves with tremendous speed, sweeping away everything in its path, burying huge tracts of land. This wave is capable of changing the shape of islands and continents. The earthquake transfers all its energy to water. Under the influence of this energy, huge masses of water are displaced and a wave is formed, which does not pose a danger to those who are in the open sea, far from the coast. And only approaching the coast, the tsunami gains strength, concentrates and spills out onto the land with all its might. But before that there is a strong ebb. The sea can retreat tens and even hundreds of meters. This is the second, especially clear sign of an impending tsunami. Moreover, the more water leaves, the higher and stronger the tsunami wave will be. If you see such an effect, in no case do not collect shells or fish, take photos or video, drop everything and run as fast as possible and as far from the coast to the hill as possible.
A few minutes before the wave hits the shore, the hum builds up, the wind rises, you can see the wave. In this case, moving by car may not speed up, but rather complicate the evacuation. In traffic jams on the road, you will lose a lot of precious time. Therefore, you will have to save yourself on foot, taking with you only the most necessary: a means of communication and documents, and it will also be useful if you have a life jacket at hand. If you can't get back to a safe distance and climb a hill, climb the roofs of strong, tall buildings or climb the tallest and most powerful trees. Do not relax after the first wave, it may be followed by several even stronger ones. The “outgoing” tsunami is no less dangerous. Having splashed onto the shore, the water returns to the sea, taking with it a monstrous mixture of mud, stones, destroyed buildings, cars and trees. Therefore, you can leave your shelter only when the appropriate notification is made.