At present, the study of geography is not possible without the use of a globe. But few people know that this visual model of the planet is more than 500 years old today.
The first globe appeared in Germany in 1492. It was invented by the geographer and traveler M. Beheim. Of course, there were geographical inaccuracies on it, for example, the lines of latitude and longitude were not displayed, but still the layout of the globe was a real breakthrough in this area of knowledge.
The first globe did not have a map of America due to the fact that Christopher Columbus made his discovery after the invention of the model, which, as his contemporaries said, greatly influenced the course of the journey.
Despite the Middle Ages and the decline of science at that time, globes have firmly entered into use and have become a symbol of the enlightenment of their masters. From a cartographic point of view, the maps shown on the globe are considered accurate.
Globes at that time were made of papier-mâché, and were covered with plaster on top and pasted over with parchment. They were most popular with seafarers, after Christopher Columbus proved in practice that the Earth is round, albeit with a small mistake, mistaking America for India. But his train of thought was correct.
In Russia, the globe appeared much later. In 1672 it was presented to the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and named the Dutch pumpkin. However, at that time, he stood unnecessarily, because there was no fleet in Russia, and no one was involved in travel.
In 1713, the German scientist A. Olschlegel presented to Tsar Peter I a globe with a map of the Earth on the outside and a map of the starry sky inside. This globe delighted the tsar and became one of the first exhibits of the Kunstkamera in the city of St. Petersburg.
A great role in the creation and distribution of globes was played by the great scientist M. V. Lomonosov, under whom they began to widely enter the scientific life of the country. The first globe in the Russian Empire was made at the end of the 17th century; clerk Karp Maksimov is considered its manufacturer.
There is also an opinion that the design of the globe was still known in ancient times. In the annals, you can find references to Crates Malsky from Pergamum, who used a similar device 2 thousand years ago, but this is not known for certain, since a copy of that globe has not survived. So from a historical point of view, the discoverer is still the German scientist Martin Beheim.