The natural conditions of Russia are very diverse. This leaves an imprint on the specialization of agriculture. In Russia, it has a zonal character. Reindeer husbandry is developed in the northern and polar regions, cattle breeding in the taiga, and crop production prevails in the forest-steppe.
Changes in agriculture depending on geography
The northern regions of Russia belong to the zone of risky farming. Fodder crops (beets, turnips) and potatoes are grown here. Livestock raising is represented by small cattle breeding farms.
Mixed coniferous-deciduous forests of the Non-Black Earth Region and the southern taiga belong to the zone of unstable agriculture. Here they grow crops that are undemanding to heat - potatoes, flax, rye, oats. Poultry and pig breeding are developed in this zone.
In the forest-steppe regions, crop production is well developed - up to half of all areas here are used for growing vegetables, potatoes, grain, industrial and fodder crops. The rich harvests in the fields here provide a good forage base for industrial poultry farming, cattle breeding and pig breeding.
The steppe zone is the main granary of the country. In the South Urals, in the Volga region, in the Kuban, wheat and corn are grown. Sheep and cattle are raised on pastures.
The mountainous regions and semi-deserts are characterized by pasture sheep breeding. Crop production is not developed here.
Comprehensive zoning of agriculture
In addition to climatic features, other factors also affect the zoning of agriculture. These include the number of people living in a particular territory, national characteristics, the presence of markets for products and different ways of organizing production.
In the 21st century, the economy of our country has changed dramatically, which could not but affect the zoning of agriculture. The role of animal husbandry has diminished, the cultivation of potatoes has been greatly dispersed, and the sowing of flax has decreased.
Modern agriculture is usually divided into several types, which take into account the climatic features of the area, the traditional specialization of large agricultural enterprises and the diversity of the economy.
The suburban type of agriculture is concentrated around large Russian cities. The livestock-farming type is characteristic of the Non-Black Earth Region and the forest-steppes of Siberia. Meat and dairy farming is developed here, as well as the cultivation of forage crops.
In the European part of Russia, an intensive agricultural and livestock type of agriculture prevails. Here they grow winter and spring wheat, sunflowers, and sugar beets. Private farms engaged in raising cattle were greatly developed.
The southern regions of the country are characterized by an intensive agricultural type of agriculture. In the lower reaches of the Volga, the Krasnodar Territory, vegetables, grain and melons are grown. Rice growing has been preserved here and there, and soybean cultivation has developed in the southern regions of the Far East.
In addition to the above main types of agriculture, there are less widespread ones - in the steppe regions of central Russia, flat animal husbandry is developed, in the Caucasus and Altai - mountain animal husbandry, and in the northern regions - reindeer husbandry.